In the last fifty years or so, the population of the subcontinent has trebled, while foodgrain output has multiplied four times, leading to some progress in per capita terms. Progress of commercial crops, cotton, sugarcane, milk, and more recently fruit, vegetables, and poultry has been faster. But this success hides great deficiency and inefficiency, symbolised by lower public investment, irrigation systems in disrepair, inadequate power, and conflicting policy. This disparity spells acute problems. A look at possible approaches to regain a balance for the future.