This article argues that global environmental changes provided a fruitful ground for scientific collaboration during the Cold War. Taking the climate research cooperation of the 1972 US-USSR Agreement on Environmental Protection as a lens, this article shows how both superpowers, initially involved in weather warfare against each other, soon cooperated to tackle the rising problem of climate change. The study reveals that while the cooperation was foremost a scientific undertaking driven by the need for data it nevertheless constantly oscillated between scientific collaboration to advance one’s own research agenda and the political tensions of the Cold War rivalry.