"This study will focus on the transnational ties of the anti-colonialist communist militancy in the Middle East, between 1919 and 1928. The networks of the Communist International will be at the centre of it. While tracing the experience of communist militancy "on the move", it will zoom in on 5 cases and some localities. By using these cases, it will try to provide some insight into the complicated relationship between the communism and anti-colonialism, as discrete entities and as intertwining forms of militancy."