Abstract

In this research, I argue that the US and EU approaches to trade-labor linkage in FTAs were institutionalized as a response to conflicting advocacy coalitions, mediated by the Executive's norm of external action. I claim that both the US and EU approaches have a specific status quo bias and hypothesize that the incremental policy changes introduced by both the US and the EU in the last 25 years were cases of institutional reproduction rather than gradual change.

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