Has the European Commission become an agent of collective securitisation in EU energy policy? We argue that EU energy policy has seen repeated collective and national securitisation moves directed in particular at Russian gas exports to the EU. However, as energy is a commodity which can be framed as a security, market or even environmental issue, (thick) collective securitisation outcomes have been contested. Most EU member states accept national and Commission-driven security discourses at the policy proposal stage, but have sought to scale down the scope of (extraordinary) measures taken in response. Consequently, the ambiguity of security in relation to energy has meant that the Commission, instead of insisting on collective securitisation outcomes, has interwoven both economic security and market frames. This has provided member states with enough leeway to push for integration dynamics according to their own national prerogatives. This study pays particular attention to the EU's Energy Union proposals and their contestation by the European Parliament and member states.