This PhD thesis is set against the backdrop of the debate initiated by feminist scholars on the need to rethink secularism and its political implications for feminism and minorities' rights. Based on a theoretical reflection on the intricate relationship between feminism, secularism and religion, this thesis traces the emergence of a kind of Islamic feminism within the Muslim community in India, where the combined use of religious and secular repertoires brings important insights into the relationship between Islam, secularism and activism. More specifically, the aim is to examine the implications of this new Muslim feminist dynamic as ways of challenging and questioning both the feminist doxa and Muslim orthodoxy. Drawing on 19 non-consecutive months of ethnographic fieldwork within the Indian Muslim Women's Movement (Bharatiya Muslim Mahila Andolan) in several Indian cities, this thesis examines how Indian Muslim women are apprehending the challenge of simultaneously addressing the claims of both equality and identity in a multicultural society. Through an exploration of the ground-breaking actions and discursive production on secularism, gender justice and Islam by Indian Muslim women activists, this thesis ultimately aims to investigate an enlightening feminist reading of the principle of secularism, where the role of religion and 'Islamic knowledge' in particular are reflected in a way to reclaim space for inclusive democracy and justice.