"This MPT recounts how American decision-makers under presidents Carter and Reagan sought to respond to the upheavals in the Middle East in the late 1970s. Beyond a more direct military presence in the region, part of the response to these new challenges lay in reorganizing the American military and granting it a larger role in the formulation of foreign policy.These twin transformations were defined by the rise of a new dominant ideology in American foreign policy: conservative internationalism.