The governance of energy resources and activities on a global scale is one of the most challenging issues that international legal scholars are called to address in the years to come. The present doctoral dissertation provides a comprehensive study of the existing body of bilateral inter-State agreements regulating all type of energy activities. These bilateral instruments, collected in several databases, currently amount to 1215 arrangements. Thus far, however, their existence, content and legal functioning has been neglected by scholars and practitioners. The purpose of my Ph.D. is therefore to carry out a close examination of these legal instruments and, to the extent possible, induce patterns of governance of energy as a legal object. The ultimate goal of my thesis is to identify a set of principles of bilateral energy governance and describe their interplay with general principles of international law and customary international rules. Shedding light on bilateral energy governance represents a prerequisite for the emergence of the international legal framework for energy.