In this Oslo Forum Paper from the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (HD), author Kathleen Gallagher Cunningham highlights a number of key findings about fragmentation in conflict, and the role of mediation in such situations. Drawing on a range of examples, the author examines the consequences of fragmentation for conflict and how peace processes may affect this fragmentation, including an exploration of the role mediation can play in exacerbating it. Practice-oriented throughout, the publication assesses techniques which mediators have used to respond to fragmentation in the past, including negotiating solely with armed actors, involving unarmed actors in the process, sequencing the negotiations, and undertaking efforts to coalesce the opposition.