This case study identifies four targets groups that are specific to the achievement of the EFA Millennium Development Goals in Mongolia: boys, out-of-school children, vulnerable children and minorities, and children of herders. Boys from herder families in remote rural areas are at the greatest risk of drop-out or non-enrollment. The case study therefore focuses on problems with access to education for boys from nomadic herder families. The inverse gender gap in the Mongolian education sector is a wellexplored topic in educational policy research. What is lacking, however, is a more comprehensive look at how, and why, the combination of gender, household income and location of school—urban, semi-urban, rural—affect access to education in Mongolia.