In this article, we explore the impact of the global cultural transformation that reconciles the values of equality and difference as parameters of the good life. Focusing on the way Brazilians perceive both equality and difference, we comment on the uncertain consequences of the interplay of old and new repertoires of social identity and inclusion. In particular, we look at the ethnoracial aspect, the most salient issue on the current debate about difference. Empirically, we analyze perceptions of inequality and difference among different segments of the Brazilian population. In particular, we focus on two issues. First, we discuss the interface of ethnoracial and national identifications in the country. Second, we explore perceptions about inequality and difference and their relationship, with special emphasis on attitudes towards affirmative action – the most traditional policy to take into account particular identities while distributing social resources – among distinct socioeconomic and racial groups.