Is multiculturalism compatible with immigrant integration? While effects of minority rights and cultural recognition are controversial, I argue that not only the analysis of multicultural policies in their interaction with other structures and policies deserves more attention, but also that a historical discussion may inform current debates. Comparing and analyzing the French Huguenots in Brandenburg-Prussia (1685–1809)and Germans in the Volga region (1764–1878), I find that incorporation outcomes, despite similarly extensive cultural rights, are driven by differing opportunity structures. These findings contribute to the growing literature on multiculturalism in Europe and advocate a new approach to its analysis.