The right of any State to develop outer space technologies is, in principle, unquestionable. In practice, problems arise when technology development approaches the very fine line between civil and military application, largely because most the technologies can be used for dual military and civil purposes. This dichotomy has raised a series of political, military, and other concerns which affect the transfer of outer space technologies, and particularly between established and emerging space-competent States. Accordingly, several States have sought means to curb the transfer of specific dual-use outer space technologies, particularly launcher technology, while allowing some transfer of these technologies for civil use. This document argues that the interests of both suppliers and recipients States can best be served not through selective control regimes but through joint co-operative measures, because it is the most efficient way to control civil-use of outer space technologies, while at the same time ensuring their transfers